Bornholm disease


Bornholm disease is a condition that affects the muscles and causes sudden, severe pain in the chest and abdomen. It is also known as epidemic pleurodynia or Devil's Grip. The pain can be quite intense and is often described as sharp and stabbing. The cause of Bornholm disease is usually a viral infection, most commonly the Coxsackie B virus, although other viruses can also lead to this condition. The pain can last for a few days to a couple of weeks and may come and go in episodes.

In addition to chest and abdominal pain, people with Bornholm disease may experience symptoms such as fever, headache, fatigue, and muscle aches. The diagnosis is usually made based on the symptoms and physical examination, as there is no specific test for Bornholm disease. Treatment typically involves managing the pain with over-the-counter pain relievers and getting plenty of rest. Most people recover fully from Bornholm disease without any complications, although some may experience recurrent episodes.

Frequently asked questions

What is Bornholm disease?

Bornholm disease, also known as epidemic pleurodynia, is a viral infection that causes sudden and severe pain in the chest and abdomen. It is caused by the Coxsackie virus and belongs to a group of illnesses known as the enteroviruses.

What are the symptoms of Bornholm disease?

The main symptom of Bornholm disease is intense stabbing pain in the chest and abdomen. Other symptoms may include fever, headache, muscle aches, and fatigue. The pain may worsen with movement or deep breathing.

How is Bornholm disease diagnosed?

Diagnosis of Bornholm disease is usually based on clinical symptoms such as sudden onset of chest and abdominal pain, along with a physical examination. Laboratory tests, such as blood tests or viral culture, may be done to confirm the presence of the Coxsackie virus.

How is Bornholm disease treated?

There is no specific treatment for Bornholm disease. Pain relievers such as ibuprofen or acetaminophen may be recommended to help alleviate the pain. Rest, hydration, and avoiding strenuous activities are also important for recovery.

Is Bornholm disease contagious?

Bornholm disease is contagious and can spread from person to person through respiratory secretions or contact with infected feces. Good hygiene practices such as frequent handwashing can help prevent the spread of the virus.

What is the outlook for someone with Bornholm disease?

Most people with Bornholm disease recover completely within a week to ten days. The pain usually subsides on its own without any long-term complications. Rarely, some individuals may experience recurrent episodes of pain.

Can Bornholm disease be prevented?

Since Bornholm disease is caused by a virus, there is no specific way to prevent it. However, practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands regularly and avoiding close contact with infected individuals, can help reduce the risk of getting infected.

Symptoms of Bornholm disease

Bornholm disease, also known as epidemic pleurodynia, is a condition caused by a type of virus called Coxsackievirus. People with Bornholm disease may experience severe pain in their chest and abdomen, which can be sharp and sudden. This pain can make it difficult to breathe deeply or move certain ways. Along with the pain, individuals may have a fever, headache, and muscle aches.

In some cases, individuals with Bornholm disease may also have a sore throat, cough, or nausea. The symptoms typically last for a few days to a week, and then gradually improve on their own as the body fights off the virus. It is important for those with Bornholm disease to get plenty of rest, stay hydrated, and take over-the-counter pain relievers as needed to help manage the discomfort.

How common is Bornholm disease

Bornholm disease is not very common. It is a viral infection caused by the Coxsackie virus. People of any age can get Bornholm disease, but it is most often seen in children and young adults. The virus spreads through respiratory droplets and can cause symptoms like sudden high fever, chest pain, headache, and muscle pain. While uncomfortable, Bornholm disease usually goes away on its own within a week or two with rest and fluids.

Causes of Bornholm disease

Bornholm disease is caused by an infection with the Coxsackie virus. This virus spreads through close contact with an infected person or by touching surfaces or objects that have the virus on them. The virus can enter the body through the mouth, nose, or eyes. Once inside the body, the virus attacks the muscles and causes inflammation, leading to the characteristic symptoms of Bornholm disease such as chest pain, fever, and muscle stiffness. The body's immune system tries to fight off the virus, which further contributes to the symptoms experienced by the person affected by Bornholm disease.

Who is affected by it

Bornholm disease can affect people of all ages, but it is most commonly seen in children and young adults. The symptoms of Bornholm disease can vary in severity from person to person. Some individuals may experience mild symptoms such as muscle pain and stiffness in the chest, while others may have more severe symptoms including difficulty breathing and extreme discomfort.

In addition to physical symptoms, Bornholm disease can also have a psychological impact on those affected. The pain and discomfort caused by the condition can lead to feelings of frustration, anxiety, and stress. It is important for individuals with Bornholm disease to seek medical attention and follow a treatment plan to help manage their symptoms and improve their overall quality of life.

Types of Bornholm disease

There are two main types of Bornholm disease: epidemic Bornholm disease and sporadic Bornholm disease. Epidemic Bornholm disease is when there is an outbreak of the infection in a community or population, often caused by a specific virus such as Coxsackievirus or Echovirus. Symptoms may include sudden onset of severe chest or abdominal pain, difficulty breathing, and muscle spasms.

Sporadic Bornholm disease, on the other hand, is when an individual experiences the infection without any known outbreak in the community. It can also be caused by viruses like Coxsackievirus or Echovirus, but the source of the infection is often unclear. Symptoms of sporadic Bornholm disease are similar to the epidemic type and can range from mild to severe. It is essential to receive proper medical care and rest when experiencing symptoms of Bornholm disease to prevent complications.

Diagnostic of Bornholm disease

Bornholm disease is diagnosed by doctors through a series of tests and examinations. First, the doctor will ask about the symptoms the person is experiencing, like chest pain or difficulty breathing. Next, the doctor may do a physical examination to check for any signs of inflammation or muscle pain in the chest area.

To confirm the diagnosis, the doctor might order blood tests to check for markers of inflammation in the body. In some cases, imaging tests like X-rays or CT scans may be done to rule out other possible causes of the symptoms. Based on the results of these tests, the doctor can make a diagnosis of Bornholm disease and recommend appropriate treatment.

Treatment of Bornholm disease

Bornholm disease, also known as epidemic pleurodynia, is a viral infection that causes severe pain in the chest and abdomen. Treatment for Bornholm disease focuses on managing the symptoms and providing relief for the pain. Doctors may recommend over-the-counter pain medications such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen to help alleviate the discomfort. Additionally, applying heat or cold packs to the affected area can also help reduce the pain. It is important to rest and stay hydrated to aid in the recovery process. In severe cases, antiviral medications may be prescribed by a healthcare provider to help shorten the duration of the illness.

Prognosis of treatment

The prognosis of Bornholm disease treatment varies depending on the severity of symptoms and how quickly a person seeks medical help. In most cases, Bornholm disease is a self-limiting condition, which means it typically gets better on its own over time. However, some people may experience lingering symptoms or complications, such as muscle pain or inflammation.

Treatment for Bornholm disease usually involves managing symptoms, such as using nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to help reduce pain and inflammation. Rest and staying well-hydrated can also aid in recovery. In some cases, physical therapy or exercises may be recommended to help improve muscle strength and flexibility. Overall, the prognosis for Bornholm disease is generally good, with most people recovering fully within a few weeks to months.

Risk factors of Bornholm disease

Risk factors for Bornholm disease include exposure to the Coxsackie virus, which is the main cause of this illness. This virus is highly contagious and can be spread through close contact with an infected person or through contact with surfaces that have the virus on them. Additionally, people who have weakened immune systems or underlying health conditions may be at a higher risk of developing Bornholm disease. Engaging in activities that put you in close contact with others, such as sharing utensils or kissing, can also increase your risk of getting the Coxsackie virus and developing this illness.

Complications of Bornholm disease

Bornholm disease can cause various complications that can be quite uncomfortable for those affected. One common complication is difficulty breathing due to inflammation of the chest muscles. This can make it hard to take deep breaths and may lead to feelings of chest tightness or pain. Another complication is muscle weakness, which can make it challenging to perform everyday tasks that require physical strength. Additionally, some individuals may experience fatigue and overall feeling unwell, which can impact their ability to engage in normal activities.

In severe cases, Bornholm disease can lead to complications such as pneumonia or pleurisy, which are infections that affect the lungs and chest cavity. These conditions can cause more serious symptoms such as high fever, persistent cough, and difficulty breathing. It is important to monitor for these complications and seek medical attention if any concerning symptoms develop.

Prevention of Bornholm disease

Bornholm disease is caused by a virus and can make you feel very sick, with symptoms like chest pain and difficulty breathing. To prevent getting Bornholm disease, it's important to wash your hands often and avoid close contact with people who are sick. You should also make sure to cover your mouth and nose when you cough or sneeze, and avoid touching your face with unwashed hands. Keeping yourself healthy by eating nutritious food, getting enough sleep, and staying active can also help prevent getting sick with Bornholm disease.

Living with Bornholm disease

Bornholm disease is a type of muscle pain that can make it hard to do everyday activities like walking or picking things up. It happens when the muscles between the ribs get swollen and sore, often from a virus. The pain can feel sharp and can come and go, lasting for a few seconds to several hours. Sometimes it can be hard to take a deep breath because of the pain in the chest area.

Living with Bornholm disease means being careful not to overexert yourself and taking breaks when needed. It's important to listen to your body and rest when the pain gets too much. Simple things like using heat packs or taking pain medication can help manage the discomfort. Sharing your experience with others who understand can also provide emotional support. Remember, it's okay to ask for help when you need it.


Bornholm disease is a viral illness caused by the Coxsackie B virus. It spreads easily through respiratory secretions and fecal-oral transmission. The illness usually occurs in clusters, especially in crowded areas like schools and daycare centers. Young children are most commonly affected, but people of all ages can get sick.

Symptoms of Bornholm disease include sudden onset of severe chest or abdominal pain, along with fever, headache, and muscle aches. The illness typically lasts about a week, but complications such as pneumonia can occur in severe cases. Treatment mainly involves managing symptoms with rest, fluids, and over-the-counter pain relievers. Good hand hygiene can help prevent the spread of the virus.


Bornholm disease, also known as epidemic pleurodynia, is a viral infection that affects the chest and abdominal muscles, causing sudden onset of severe pain. The disease is caused by a group of viruses called coxsackieviruses. These viruses are usually spread through respiratory secretions or fecal-oral contamination. Diagnosis of Bornholm disease is usually based on symptoms reported by the patient, such as chest pain, fever, and muscle tenderness.

Research on Bornholm disease focuses on understanding the genetic makeup of the coxsackieviruses that cause the illness, as well as developing effective treatments and prevention strategies. Scientists are studying how the virus spreads and how it affects the body's immune system. They are also investigating potential vaccines that could prevent infection in the future. By conducting these studies, researchers hope to improve our understanding of Bornholm disease and develop better ways to diagnose, treat, and prevent it.

History of Bornholm disease

Bornholm disease, also known as epidemic pleurodynia, is a viral infection caused by the Coxsackie B virus. This disease mainly affects the chest and abdominal muscles, leading to symptoms such as severe chest pain, difficulty breathing, and fever. Bornholm disease was first reported in Denmark in 1930, hence the name "Bornholm," which refers to a Danish island where the illness was prevalent.

The virus is typically transmitted through respiratory droplets or contact with contaminated surfaces. While Bornholm disease can cause significant discomfort and pain, it usually resolves on its own within a few days to weeks. Treatment typically involves managing symptoms with pain relievers and ensuring plenty of rest and fluids. Despite the discomfort it causes, Bornholm disease is usually not considered serious and most people recover fully without complications.

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